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Series Land Rover Cooling System - Fault Diagnosis

Outline of the cooling system operation.
The cooling system in a Series Land Rover begins to operate once the engine coolant has reached approximately 75C. At about this temperature the thermostat, located in the cylinderhead below the top radiator hose, begins to open. At about 90C the thermostat is fully open and coolant can circulate freely.

Coolant is pumped by the mechanical water pump from the bottom of the radiator into the engine block. From here it circulates around the block and cylinderhead and then enters the radiator through the top radiator hose.
The fan and motion of the Land Rover both draw air through the radiator and cool the coolant in the process.
In cold climates the coolant is a mixture of water and antifreeze whereas in tropical climates
the coolant may consist entirely of a commercial coolant mixture.

The coolant is under pressure so that the boiling point of the coolant is raised above its normal value.

A Series Land Rover is often called upon to provide a power source whilst stationary
and it is for this reason that a large capacity radiator and cooling fan is provided. If the vehicle is not used in a tropical environment and maintains reasonable forward movement than the fan is often not required. In these circumstances a temperature controlled electric fan could be utilised with slight gain in fuel consumption as a result.

External - Clips on top, bottom or bypass hoses not fully tightened; perished water hoses; gaskets on engine components leaking due to components not being fully tightened e.g.water pump seals; thermostat gasket; loose or damaged core plugs; damaged radiator seams, drain tap not fully tightened; spring in the radiator filler cap weak or the seal for the cap not sealing.
Internal - Damaged head gasket
causing water to enter cylinders and/or oil (coolant may also be pushed down the overflow pipe under pressure); loose cylinder head bolts; cracked cylinder bore or cylinder head.

Poor Circulation
Squashed or internally collapsedwater hose; not enough coolant in the system; loose and slipping fan belt; thermostat not opening fully; faulty water pump; blockage in the radiator core;

Lack of regular flushing and draining of coolant; incorrect coolant used; excessively polluted water used.

Engine faults:
Blocked thermosat;
faulty water pump. carburettor mixture too weak (P); blown cylinder head gasket; low oil level or dirty oil (blocking oil galleries); fuel distributor pump setting wrong (D); ignition timing wrong (P); distributor advance and retard mechanism not set correctly (P); valve timing wrong; new engine not yet run-in.
Other causes:
Insufficient or incorrect coolant used; insufficient draining and flushing of system causing corrosion deposits to accumulate; water hose collapsed; air lock in cooling system (usually at the heater); air flow through radiator restricted; partially blocked exhaust pipe or silencer; binding brakes; vehicle overloaded, excessive hill climbing, low gear work or idling;

Thermostat stuck open or missing; wrong thermostat fitted for the particular working environment of the Land Rover; inaccurate temperature guage.

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